• When plotting the different 'Orsten' fossils on a World map, it becomes evident that these reflect the continent situation in the Cambrian quite well: After the break-up of the large super continent Rodinia at the end of the Precambrian, a number of smaller continents lay like pearls on a line near the equator, north of the remaining Gondwana continent.
  • Yet, no 'Orsten'-type fossils have been reported from the continental coast of Gondwana so far, though the so-called "small shellies" are numerous (more on these in due course; see, e.g. papers by O. Elicki). The zero record of ‚Orsten’-type fossils from any of the coasts around the Gondwana continent requires further consideration.

  • The 8 areas from which Orsten fossils have become known so far are from 4 continents:

    • North America

      • Nevada, USA: only Markuelia specimens

      • Eastern Canada:, type-A larvae and pentastomids

    • Europe

      • Comley, England: only a few phosphatocopine youngsters so far

      • Southern Sweden: the bulk of material, incl. Agnostus pisiformis with limbs and a lobopode, no nemathelminths so far

      • Northwestern Poland: Skara specimens, phosphatocopines and a stem crustacean named Cambrocaris baltica

    • Asia

      • Olenek uplift, Siberia: many empty shells of phosphatocopines and 4 specimens of a stem tardigrade
        Guizhu, China: Lower to Upper Cambrian taxa, incl. eucrustaceans, such as a Skara, Yicaris dianensis, Wujicaris muelleri and phosphatocopines

    • Australia

      • Locations south of Mount Isa, margin of Georgina Basin, Northern Territory: Nemathelminths, phosphatocopines and type-A larvae

  • In detail, there seems to be one faunistic connection Laurentia-Baltica-China (preferentially series 3 and Furongian, about the former Middle to late Cambrian; see website ICS). Another connection seems to exist between Sibiria, China, Australia and North America - Nevada (pref. series 2 and 3). This is especially apparent when including the occurrences of the cycloneuralian nemathelminth embryo Markuelia – see below.

  • Of the Crustacea, the Phosphatocopina occur in most localities, are the by far most abundant faunal elements, and have a long geological record. The oldest in 3D of a phosphatocopine with appendages is Klausmuelleria from Comley, England, so far (possibly terreneuvian [series 1], former lower Cambrian), those from Siberia (possibly series 2) are all queezed shields only. Phosphatocopines from series 2 (possibly series 2) of Australia have no apparent 
    systematic connection to those of the series 3 and Furongian faunas (those known with appendages are lacking exopods).

  • Remarkably widespread are the type-A larvae, most likely nauplii of still unknown eucrstaceans – therefore the oldest record of true (eucrustacean) nauplii so far. They occur in Canada, Sweden and Australia and range from possibly series 2 to the lower Ordovician (former Middle Cambrian to Lower Ordovician).

  • Skaracarida, representatives of Eucrustacea, have also been reported from more localities than just Sweden: one record is from Poland (series 3), another is from China (series 3 or Furongian, Dong et al. 2005), the oldest specimen is from series 2 (former Middle 
    Cambrian) of Australia.

  • Now we have evidence also of eucrustaceans from series 2, Lower Cambrian, of China. Yicaris dianensis, in 2007 described in a Nature paper (see references) is know form several larval stages, the smallest having already a few trunk segments. The exciting structure of the new form is its epipodites, three in number, that developed from small setae at the outer base of the limbs from the maxilla backwards (maxillula has only two setae there).

    The latest shoot was on the oldest metanauplius found so far, which is strikingly similar to those of modern entomostracan crustaceans, particularly those of barnacles. The paper on this new form, named Wujicaris muelleri, appeared 2010 in Current Biology!

  • Lobopodian stem arthropods (Artrhopoda s. l.) in 3D preservation are known only from Sweden (published 2008 as Orstotubulus evamuellerae). Yet they have been reported before in flat preservation from China, the U.S.A. and northern Greenland (Hadranax augustus Budd & Peel,1998). This might however change in due course due to new findings by one of our colleagues. 
    Considering also the Microdictyon „buttons„ in small-shelly assemblages, shelly plates of certain lobopodians, the range of lobopodians is apparently much wider.

  • Tardigrada, another stem-arthropod taxon, are known from possibly series 2, formerly Middle Cambrian, of Siberia only (still to be described taxonomically).

  • Pentastomida have been discovered, so far, in Newfoundland and in Sweden (late Cambrian to Lower 
    Ordovician). Remarkably, these do not occur together with any of the other arthropods, but only with conodonts, and they seem to be restricted to reworked horizons. This mighgt give some information on their occurrence and life strategies.

    Pentastomids represent, apart from one record of a Markuelia specimen from the USA, the youngest forms in the
     classical 'Orsten' preservation. Notably, pentastomids co-occur exclusively with conodonts, for us this is an interesting hint to their possible (most likely?) host/parasite association.

  • Besides arthropods, there is only one more taxon preserved in Orsten type 3D preservation, namely the cycloneuralian nemathelminths. This in-group taxon of the roundworms possesses a chitin-bearing cuticle that has to be moulted, similar to the situation in arthropods.

    Longer known are the so-called palaeoscolecids, long worms with a cuticle made of
     numerous small, button-like plates (Müller & Hinz 1993). Such plates have even been described before the finds of isolatedpieces of cuticle – plates called Hadimopanella etc. – within the "small shelly" assemblages.

  • The embryonic nemathelminth Markuelia (actually a late larva still inside the egg) has been found in Siberia, China, Australia and the U.S.A., its geological record ranges from the Cambrian series 2 to the Lower Ordovician. Our paper on a new species from Australia 

    has just appeared (see our page on finished projects).

  • More nemathelminths are known from the Cambrian series 2 from Australia. The first paper on a larva-like form is out since 2008 (see list of references!), the paper on a number of loricate larvae appeared in 2009 (see our page on finished projects).

It also becomes clear that preservation of 'Orsten'-type fossils from different times may be caused by different reasons and are not necessarily from nodular limestones, as in Västergötland, Sweden. This will be investigated in more detail in the future.

Our still up-to-date joint paper about general aspects of the 'Orsten':

Maas, A. Braun, A., Dong Xiping, Donoghue, P., Müller, K.J., Olempska, E., Repetski, J.E., Siveter, D.J., Stein, M. & Waloszek, D. 2006. The ‘Orsten’ – more than a Cambrian Konservat-Lagerstätte yielding exceptional preservation. Palaeoworld 15, 266-282.

This page will list the lasted Orsten news.

 

An example of the new fascinating alliance between Biology and Palaeontology to improve our understanding of Metazoan evolution are the 'Orsten' fossils. The discoveries of 'Orsten' fossil sites, now known from all around the World, have provided us with a unique window into life at the bottom of the Sea as early as in the Cambrian – and even in a three-dimensional view. 

Enjoy our 'Orsten' web page, and feel free to send us an email; we are grateful for any kind of suggestions, additions, critics, etc.

 –  
Occurrences around the world (left). More pictures, e.g., in our gallery of Orsten animals. 'Orsten' brochure (PDF, right). Click image to download the brochure.

 Objectives and Aims of CORE research

In 2005 an international C.O.R.E. Group was founded by us as an informal international research alliance with a common interest in the exceptionally 3D preserved 'Orsten' fossils from the Cambrian. Until 2015 it increased to around 40 members from no less than 8 countries from 4 continents plus Japan. It was meant as a Center of 'Orsten' Research and Exploration = C.O.R.E., mainly kept together by the workgroup around Dieter Waloszek at the University of Ulm. C.O.R.E. also stood for an alliance of Biology and Palaeontology in order to improve our understanding of animal evolution (Metazoa). Study objects of C.O.R.E. were and still are in the main the 'Orsten' fossils themselves, but also broader aspects such as  the geology around the 'Orsten' and more (from pale-environment and habitual aspects to all aspects of morphology and functional morphology, to interrelationships and phylogeny to evolution in general).

Main issue of the international research alliance was the concentration of expertise about the 'Orsten' and its fossils, the sites in which these occur, and related topics, last but not least the dissemination of information on the 'Orsten'. To serve these purposes we had created the initial version of this 'Orsten' website, with simple tools, so not as perfect as others, but we try to add more information continuously, correct and update the content as regular as possible.

The 'Orsten' website aims at including not only information about the 'Orsten' in geological terms, and its fossils – mainly animals – but also to provide some background data on animals, Metazoa per se and on history of 'Orsten' research (from the founder to the activities today), images, illustrations, graphics and – last but not least – relevant literature. On our initial website interested persons could easily download PDFs of all, or at least most of our papers, and also several papers from the CORE members (otherwise pick their email address from the contacts page and ask directly. We also listed all papers published by the discoverer of the 'Orsten' and founder of 'Orsten' research, Klaus J. Müller, Bonn (an extra chapter on him presented too), most also available as PDFs now. Due to limited space of the old website, we could not uphold the number of pdfs and had to offer to send pdf only on demand/request. The new website version was aimed at overcoming this, but the CMS system causes many problems to us and we are working on solutions....

Major information was about the Swedish 'Orsten' lagerstätten, discovered by Klaus Müller, explaining the bias on information given here. Yet we still hope that we can progressively add more from other sites, particularly from China, yielding the hitherto oldest fossils of this type of preservation, and different research groups in the field, such as from China, Poland and Sweden. Indeed the sites from the various countries around the World have contributed not only significantly to our knowledge about and around the 'Orsten' by adding and and different species, but they also added to our knowledge about lithological, perservational and taphonomical issues. And they expanded the time frame of 'Orsten' occurrences considerably. In fact the 'Orsten' is the longest ranging type of conserve lagerstaette, outranging Chengjiang from China – on early Cambrian – and Burgess Shale – only early to Middle Cambrian – by far: 'Orsten' is known from the early Cambrian to the latest Cambrian (Furongian), possibly extending even into the lower Ordovician!

Lastly, and of course, the fossils from the new localities helped to improve and widen our evolutionary interpretations significantly (examples: papers from 2007, published in Nature in 2007, from 2010, published in Current Biology, or the more recent papers by Maeda et al. 2011, Terfelt and Erikson in 2012 or by our Chinese colleagues from 2012 and 2013, and most recently in a paper on a new so-called type-A larva from China in Zhang H et al. 2016). This aspect will be dealt with in an extra section.

Current Scientific Activities of the different Research Teams

 

 

Early Phase (Bonn I) – The Discoverer Klaus J. Müller and His First Activities

Klaus on the Isle of Oeland, Sweden

In 1963 Klaus J. Müller came from Berlin, where he had finished his dissertation and habilitation, to the University of Bonn to receive a C4 professorship of micropalaeontology at the Institute of Palaeontology of the University of Bonn. Already in Berlin he was very interested in all kinds of exceptional preservation, such as silification and phosphatisation. Now in Bonn, he could establish his own research field and, for a long time, Klaus worked systematically on mainly Cambrian conodonts and on their inner fine structure, partly together with his Japanese colleague, Prof. Nogami.

Already in 1964, Klaus had published a long paper on Swedish Cambrian bivalved arthropods called Phosphatocopina, but it took until 1975, when the first fossils in an 'Orsten'-type soft-integument preservation was detected by him and his technical assistants. Klaus immediately realized the importance of these findings because of their high quality of preservation and completeness, and because of their high age.

Using considerable personal and lobarotory efforts (including special microscopes [Zeiss] for sorting), more than 1 1/2 tons of 
'Orsten' limestone rock were dissolved in a specifically designed laboratory in Bonn, and the insoluble residues picked by the technical assistants and pre-documented using a scanning electron microscope (the legendary Cambridge S4).

Without this extremely high effort, Klaus' knowledge of chemistry, his organizational skills, and his lasting high interest, this exceptionally rare material would have neverbeen assembled in a quantity needed for our thorough analysis. Yet, a severe illness cause Klaus to pause in the late 19seventies. His illness was extremely severe, and he had to stay at the hospital for quite some time.

During this period, Klaus could, however, rely on several invaluable and skilled assistants who continued to sort the material, prepare the first results, i.e. specimens in microslides or on SEM stubs, which are investigated now in Ulm.
His assistants also made the first SEM photographs.

Three of the persons have to be named here in particular:

  • Mrs. Helga Rehbach, name-giving for Rehbachiella,
  • Mrs. Gossmann, who helped far into the 1990ies (one species the pentastomids was named gossmannae after her), and
  • Mrs. Peilert, who was thanked for her sorting effort by giving Dala its species name peilertae.

It became clear to Klaus very soon that he alone would not be able to work up this diverse material, preserved in a "biological quality" in an adequate way. At this step, he had to decide either to continue looking for other 'Orsten'-like occurrences worldwide or to investigate the 'Orsten' fauna in much depth, i.e. with a biological background.

Klaus finally decided in favour of an in-depth-study of the 'Orsten' fauna and to postpone further search for similar 'Orsten'-type faunas for the time being. This is, when Dieter joined in ...

Besides the intense Orsten research Klaus started after the discovery of "soft parts", he continued his work on other phosphatic microfossils, mainly the conodonts, which culminated in a large monograph on this taxon together with Ingelore Hinz-Schallreuter in 1993 published in Fossils and Strata. He also continued to work on shelly fragments, e.g. in material from Australia, which also contained sceletal elements of the cuticle of certain, most likely cycloneuralian nemathelminths called palaeoscolecids. Papers on certain shall shellies and on palaeoscolecids were also published in conjunction with Ingelore Hinz-Schallreuter.

 

Phase of the Co-Operation of Dieter Waloszek and Klaus Müller (Bonn II)

This phase started 1981, when Klaus assistant Raimond Below had to join the army. In order not to let the position empty, Klaus hired Dieter as a research assistant for one year. During this time, Dieter prepared much of the Müller (1983) paper on six non-phosphatocopine Orsten Crustacea. Dieter left Bonn with the promise of a contract in his pocket if he would finish his pdh in due course (one year).

In 1982, Dieter had finished much of his dissertation thesis and was allowed to return to Bonn and into Klaus' working group already in fall. After the successful defence of his thesis in spring 1983, Dieter received a full research position in Bonn and collaborated with Klaus until 1994 – long after Klaus had formally retired.

Some key events: the invitation by Euan Clarkson to a conference in Edinburgh in 1984 on "Fossil arthropods as living organisms", Dieter's visit of Robert Hessler and William Newman at the SCRIPPS Insitution of Oceanography in California, Dieter's visit to Australia together with Raimond Below to discover more Orsten-type material in the outback of the Northern Territory. First publications on this appeared a few years later and more are currently under way. Guides of this trip were the late John Shergold from Canberra, Australia, well known for his agnostid studies, and John Laurie, still active in Australia. In 1989 Dieter went again to SCRIPPS and also to various other places to give talks, including Chicago, meeting Roy Plotnick, Cambridge, where he was lucky to meet Stephen J. Gould, and Walpole, Maine meeting Les Watling.

1990 was of significance in two ways, the publication of the first paper following the method of phylogenetic systematics (Walossek & Müller 1990, see list of references), and the submission of Dieter's habilitation.

The 'Orsten' project, initiated and led by Klaus, was continuously funded by the German Research Foundation DFG 
until 1994, even long after Klaus's retirement in 1988! During his long working period, the principal focus of Klaus and, later together with Dieter, on the arthropod components in the faunal associations (4 big Fossils & Strata monographsresulted from this and various smaller papers, some still available, ask us for a copy). Yet, they were able to progressively expanded their studies also to material from different ages, e.g., from the Middle Cambrian, to the boundary between Cambrian and Ordovician, from different regions, e.g., Canada, Russia, Australia, and Poland, to material also from other groups of organisms, such as Pentastomida, Tardigrada, Priapulida, and some Problematica (examples given below).

In 1992/3, Andreas Braun joined in and travelled with Klaus and Dieter to Moscow to negotiate new collaborations. In the same year Klaus and Dieter have a nice joint field trip to Sweden, visiting Öland, Öostergötland (Motala) and Västergötland. 1994 Dieter and Klaus published a paper on the oldest parasites ever found, members of Pentastomida (tongue worms). 1994 was a big break because not only Dieter's job expired in Bonn, but he received a substitute professorship in Kiel. This position resulted in the successful application for a permanent professorship in Ulm – and not in Hamburg, as expected or hoped by him because of his northern German origin.

 

The Ulm Phase - Part I

Since 1995, Dieter is working at the university of Ulm. Together with the professorship he received theposition of the head of the newly established Section for Biosystematic Documentation, which was, however, closed down in 2006 by the University due to so-called "structural re-organisation".

Continuation of the 'Orsten' research has been guaranteed by Klaus kindly permitting the transfer of the whole material to Ulm. Yet, Klaus still continues participating in our studies, not so much in co-authoring, but in discussing matters with us from time to time and supporting our work.

In 1997 Andreas Maas, funnily born in the same small town as Dieter, joined in, starting to work on euphausiid larvae (Euphausia superba) and euphausiid phylogeny as topic of his diploma work.

The real come back of 'Orsten' research took 4 years and started when this Dieter received a DFG-funded grant for Andreas in 1999 to investigate the huge material of Phosphatocopina in
 the frame of a doctorate thesis. This study was finished with Andreas' successful defence in 2002. The results (one to one) were published as another Fossils & Strata monograph in 2003 (our fifth one on 'Orsten' arthropods).

Currently, Andreas is working as a research assistant in the section, having collaborated with Dieter also on Chengjiang fossils from 2002 to 2005. He also finished his habilitation successfully in April 2008.

Exploration of new 'Orsten' occurrences worldwide in younger, and, even more important, in strata older than the 
Swedish Orsten had to be postponed by Klaus and Dieter due to "hands free". This was reconsidered already in the mid-nineties, when Andreas Braun joined the 'Orsten' working group in Bonn (our joint trip to Moscow, Russia yielded the little tardigrade from Siberia).

In 2001, Andreas Braun and Dieter could undertake an extended field trip to the tundra of north eastern Siberia(Olenek river area suth of the Lena delta), where they collected about 100 kg of rock material hoping to get more 'Orsten'-type fossils (financed by Klaus). Some images of this most remarkable expedition – guided by two Russian field geologists – will be added here soon.

In 2003 Martin Stein, palaeontology student from the university of Marburg, started to work on 'Orsten' "odds and ends" in the course of our DFG project and also helped in the China project, in which Dieter, Andreas and also Andreas Braun were engaged at that time. In the early summer of 2004 Martin left us us for a better paid postion in Uppsala, Sweden, but continued working with us on different projects since then – see below.

From March 2004 to May 2005 Andreas Braun had been able to devote his efforts exclusively to tasks within the 
frame of our directed search and work in China. A highlight was a trip to Sweden, Öland and Västergötland (Falbygden and Kinnekulle), in the summer of 2004 , together with Martin as our translator.

There, we could meet John Ahlgren, amateur palaeontologist and knower of the Kinnekulle area, who gave us some rock from which we successfully extracted more pentastomid material. We are currently – better: whenever time allows – working on it.

During his stay in Ulm and continuing in Uppsala, Sweden, Martin developed 3D models of one of our critters named Oelandocaris oelandica Müller, 1983, using the software Blender. He could even animate the animal in a nice and persuasive manner (klick here to see it swimming).

After a first short publication on Oelandocaris oelandica (Stein et al. 2005), we have worked together on a more detailed paper about this interesting "stem crustacean" und recently, which has just been published (see publications). Martin could also discriminate seevral different ontogenetic stages, which led a a better structuring of the morphology not as a variation, but differences between the specimens due to developmental differences.

On the right side a sequence of images taken out of the movie to demonstrate the movement also in a publication.

 

The Ulm Phase - Part II

We consider spring 2005 as the date of a new period because we founded the international C.O.R.E. group. For long we had thought of something like a workgroup that aims at the concentration of expertise and the possible/hopefully even exploration of new sites, but at this time we put it into reality, and we could immediately attract several scientists to join in. The major tasks of the group during the next years will be to combine skills and expertise from different disciplines, to train youngsters and to help each other in the research on 'Orsten' and related issues.

Exciting new 'Orsten' material has been brought up in particular by our Chinese members Dong Xi-ping and Zhang Xi-guang, who discovered 'Orsten' 3D arthropods in China and joined in in 2005. More has been provided by Ewa Olempska from Poland joining in in 2005. Collaborations concerning this material are under way. We were also happy to recruit colleagues like the palaeontologist John Repetski from the USA, and David Siveter and Euan Clarkson, UK, both well-known palaeontologists, in 2005, with whom we had already co-operations before. David worked on various palaeozoic forms, including the 3D-'Orsten'-type preserved phosphatocopine from Comley, UK., and Euan is working for long on trilobites from the Swedish alum shales. Phil Donoghue joined in later during 2005 adding his expertise on embryo fossils (mainly nemathelminths). A big set arrived with colleagues from Copenhagen, Jens Høeg and Jørgen Olesen, working on crustaceans, and Reinhardt Kristensen working on minute animals like tardigrades and much more. Also zoologists like the Low-Reynolds specialist and expert on meiofauna crustaceans and highspeed cinematopgraphy, Rudi Strickler from Milwaukee, USA, or the chelicerate specialist Jason Dunlopfrom Berlin became members during 2005. With this, our group grew rapidly.

In December 2005 Joachim Haug started his PhD project on 'Orsten' larvae, and he and his wife Carolin Haug have been welcomed as new C.O.R.E.-Group members.

Already the first few months of Joachim's collaboration indicated that new things are to be expected. His huge effort and his enthusiasm led to a much better insight of the ontogeny of stem crustaceans, corrected various views based on our admittedly incomplete and, partly rough studies in 1990, and his excellent background in arthropods and the theory of PS also helped much in our discussions. Furthermore, his 3D reconstructions, initiated by Martin, will bring us much forward in a better way of comparing the different taxa and also to make comparisons with extant counterparts in terms of relationships or morphological/ecological similarities. In the meantime we have more than 10 species in three dee and now even in 4D, an new word created by Joachim for the modelling of 3d animals during ontogeny/time.

David Siveter visited Ulm in January 2006 continuing some work, and Dieter and Andreas met Dong Xiping and Zhang Xi-guang in China. Next, we could welcome the trilobite specialist Nigel Hughes in Ulm, who visited Dieter after a short stay in Tübingen. In April 2006 Liu Yu, who had finished his Master work on Chengjiang material (in the lab of Professor Hou), joined the club. Subsequently the palaeontologist Michael Steiner from Berlin, having worked already for long on fossil embryos and other phosphatized microfossils from China. Dieter also had the chance to do some first joint investigations with Xiping Dong during his stay in Beijing, while he was attending the 2nd International Congress of Paleontologists there. At the end of 2006, the zoologist Georg Mayer, Berlin, visited us to work on our lobopodian, joined in – by that time the CORE group had grown to 20 members. A good year end, enhanced by the membership of Gideon Haug, the youngest member (three months old by then).

Until early 2007, the CORE group grew further, attracting palaeontologists as well as zoologists, including Klaus Müller, the discoverer. Davidvisited us again to finish up the paper on a new find from China (see below). During this year, Mark Williams, now in Leicester, joined in. Mark will continue work on the Lower Cambrian Comley locality because his project has been approved recently – possibly even in collaboration with the Ulm team.

A severe event, and draw-back, was the discovery of prostate cancer for Dieter in May 2007, which forced him to be operated upon and radiation from October to December treatment. Although there are indications that also the radiation treatment did not stop the cancer

Regrettably, Mrs. Silvia Simmet, Dieter's secretary, had to leave by the end of September 2007 due to a decision of the university. She is now working for another department, so that we have to do all administrative jobs ourselves............

Better news was the successful publication of Yicaris from the Lower Cambrian of China together with our CORE member Zhang Xiguang on October 4th in NATURE. By the end of 2007 also our friend John (Jompa) Ahlgren from Mariestad near the Kinnekulle, Shweden, joined in, filling up the team with a skilled artist! The last of this year (so far) to join in is Christopher Castellani from France. Christopher started his job November 2, 2007, helping us in the frame of a EU-Molmorph funded position to work up the newly accumulated material of pentastomids from Västergötland.

Dieter had hoped that 2008 would bring him better news about his cancer but, regrettably, it still is just a hope to get back to "normal": cancer continued, though slowly, to grow, even after radiation. Even more, bad news was that a lymph bladder has to be operated this summer because it might have caused problems with thrombosis.

In February 2008, we could welcome two new CORE members, Zheng Lui from China, student of Dong Xiping, and Jakob Vinther from the USA, student of Derek Briggs. More on these two in due course. Lastly, after summer holidays, Wolfgang Böckeler, Kiel, not only handed his entire pentastomid material over to us, but als became a CORE member, and recently Jean Vannier from France joined in, having a student, David, working on conodonts. Both are currently in our lab inspecting conodont material from Klaus Müller here.

 

Our present research work in Ulm concentrates on the finalisation of papers on several stem crustaceans, Joachim Haug's dissertation, and more items in the surroundings of fossils and the evolution of Arthropoda and its putative relatives, and on putative priapulid loricae from Australia.

 

Table of Orsten' taxa (from Australia, China, Poland, Sweden, and UK so far)

This is our first, almost complete list of more than 50 'Orsten' fossil taxa (name giving also by others, of course) and the only authorized by us. Current update from April 15, 2011

Note that Agnostos pisiformis is different from the rest of 'Orsten' arthropods in so far that it has been known for long in form of its calcitic head and tail shields of the large specimens. What is still missing in this list are the cambrogeorginids, palaeoscolecids and more non-arthropods and small shellies, which will be added in due course.

no taxon (mainly species)locality/stratigraphic rangesystematicspicturemajor reference(s)
1 Aengapentastomum andresi Waloszek, Repetksi & Maas, 2006 Västergötland, Sweden, Furongian, uppermost Cambrian, reworked into Lower Ordovician layers Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage Agnostus pisiformis Waloszek et al. 2006
2 Agnostus pisiformis(Wahlenberg, 1818) Skåne, Öland, Väster-götland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3, uppermost Middle Cambrian, according to latest decisions of the International Stratigraphic Commission, A.-pisiformis zone (originally lowermost stratum of Upper Cambrian of the Baltoscandic Region) Arthropoda s. str. Euarthro-poda incertae sedis, possibly closer to Crustacea s. l. (sister taxon?) Agnostus pisiformis Müller & Walossek 1987, Walossek & Müller 1990, 1998a, Stein et al. 2005
3 Boeckelericambria pelturae Walossek & Müller, 1994 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Furongian = uppermost Cambrian, according to Internl. Strat. Comm., zone 5/6 of original Upper Cambrian of Baltoscandic Region Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1994
5 Bredocaris admirabilis Müller, 1983 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Maxillopoda Thecostraca stemlineage   Müller 1983, Müller & Walossek 1988b, Walossek & Müller 1992, 1998a, b
6 Cambrocaris baltica Walossek & Szaniawski, 1991 Furongian, late Cambrian of northern Poland Euarthropoda Crustacea stemlineage   Walossek & Szaniawski 1991
7 Cambropachycope clarksoni Walossek & Müller, 1990 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Middle Cambrian Euarthropoda Crustacea stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1990
8 Cambropycnogon klausmuelleriWaloszek & Dunlop, 2002 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3, uppermost Middle Cambrian Euarthropoda Chelicerata s.str. Pycnogonida stemlineage   Müller & Walossek 1986b, 1988a, Walossek & Dunlop 2002, Vilpoux & Waloszek 2003
9 Dala peilertae Müller, 1983 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian, late Cambrian Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Maxillopoda stemlineage   Müller 1981, see also Müller 1983, which was not the real first description
10 Falites fala Müller, 1964, ST 1708 (UB W 237) Sweden, Ctenopyge Zone (Zone 5), Västergötland Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Müller 1964, see also 1979 and Maas et al. 2003
11 Goticaris longispinosa Walossek & Müller, 1990 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian, late Cambrian Euarthropoda Crustacea stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1990
12 Haffnericambria trolmeniensis Walossek & Müller, 1994 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian, late Cambrian Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1994
13 Henningsmoenicaris scutula (Walossek & Müller, 1990) new name for Henningsmoenia scutula Walossek & Müller 1990 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3, uppermost Middle Cambrian Euarthropoda Crustacea stemlineage – Hennings-moenia is pre-occupied by Schallreuter (1968)   Walossek & Müller, 1990, 1991
14

Hesslandona angustata Maas, Waloszek & Müller, 2003, ST 3122 (UB W 203, Holotype)

A. pisiformis Zone, Gum, Västergötland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   see Maas et al. 2003
15 Hesslandona curvispina Maas, Waloszek & Müller, 2003, ST 3721 (UB W 205, Holotype) A. pisiformis Zone, Kinnekulle, Västergötland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Maas et al. 2003
16 Hesslandona kinnekullensis Müller, 1964, ST 2225 (UB W 174) Olenus Zone (Lowermost Furongian) of Västergötland, Öland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Müller 1964, see also Maas et al. 2003
17 Hesslandona necopina Müller, 1964 (Type species of Hesslandona Müller, 1964), ST 2204 (UB W 165) A. pisiformis Zone, Västergötland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Müller 1964, see also Maas et al. 2003
18 Hesslandona suecicaMaas, Waloszek & Müller, 2003, ST 3211 (UB W 197) A. pisiformis Zone, Kinnekulle, Västergötland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Maas et al. 2003
19 Hesslandona toreborgensis Maas, Waloszek & Müller, 2003, ST 3771 (UB W 214, Holotype) Olenus Zone (Lowermost Furongian) of Västergötland, Öland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Maas et al. 2003
20 Hesslandona trituberculataLochmann & Hu, 1960, ST 3244 (UB W 179) Olenus Zone (Lowermost Furongian) of Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Öland, S; Holotype from Du Noir Limestone, early Upper Cambrian, Cedaria Zone at Sheep Mountain Section, Northwest Wind River Mountains, northeastern Sublette County, Wyoming, USA Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Lochmann & Hu 1960, see also Maas et al. 2003
21 Hesslandona unisulcata Müller, 1982
ST xxxx
Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3, uppermost Middle Cambrian Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Müller 1979, Müller 1982, Maas et al. 2003, Maas & Waloszek 2005
22 Hesslandona ventrospinata Gründel in Gründel & Buchholz, 1980, ST 3488 (UB W 186) A. pisiformis Zone, Västergötland, S; Holotype from erratic boulders of Rügen Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Gründel & Buchholz 1980, see also Maas et al. 2003
23 Heymonsicambria gossmannae Walossek & Müller, 1994 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian, late Cambrian Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1994
24 Heymonsicambria kinnekullensis Walossek & Müller, 1994 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1994
25 Heymonsicambria repetskii Walossek & Müller, 1994 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1994
26 Heymonsicambria scandica Walossek & Müller, 1994 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1994
27 Heymonsicambria sp. a of Walossek & Müller (1994) Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage   Walossek & Müller 1994
28 Heymonsicambria taylori Walossek, Repetski & Müller, 1994 Upper Furongian or Lower Ordovician, Newfoundland, Canada Arthropoda stemlineage Pentastomida stemlineage   Walossek, Repetski & Müller 1994
29 Klausmuelleria salopensis Siveter, Waloszek & Williams, 2003 Comley, UK, possibly series 2, uppermost Lower Cambrian Arthropoda Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina – sister taxon to all others   Siveter et al. 2001, 2003, Maas et al. 2003, Maas & Waloszek 2005
30 Markuelia laurieiHaug, Maas, Waloszek, Donoghue & Bengtson, 2009 Rogers Ridge, Australia, possibly, series 2 or 3, former Middle Cambrian Nemathelminthes ?Cycloneuralia   Haug et al. 2009
31 Martinssonia elongata Müller & Walossek, 1986 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3

 

Euarthropoda Crustacea stemlineage   Müller & Walossek 1986, Walossek & Müller 1990
32 Musacaris gerdgeyeriHaug, Waloszek & Maas, 2010 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3 Euarthropoda Crustacea stemlineage   Haug et al. 2010a
33 Oelandocaris oelandica Müller, 1983 Öland, Sweden, uppermost Furongian, new material from Västergötland, which is also uppermost Cambrian Euarthropoda Crustacea stemlineage   Müller 1983, Stein et al. 2005
34 Orstenocarida Müller & Walossek, 1988 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Cambrian = Furongian Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Maxillopoda Thecostraca stemlineage see Bredocaris Müller 1983, Müller & Walossek 1988b, Walossek & Müller 1992, 1998a, b
35 Orstenoloricus shergoldii Maas, Waloszek, Haug & Müller, 2009 Rogers Ridge, Australia, possibly, series 2 or 3, former Middle Cambrian Nemathelminthes Cycloneuralia Scalidophora   Maas et al. 2009
36 Orstenotubulus ewamuellerae Maas, Mayer, Kristensen & Waloszek, 2007 Skåne, Oeland, Väster-götland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3 Arthropoda stemlineage   Maas et al. 2007
37 Phosphatocopina Müller, 1964 worldwide, Middle to Upper Cambrian, according to the find of Klausmuelleria also Lower Cambrian Arthropoda Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora – sister taxon to Eucrustacea see Hesslandona Müller 1964, 1979a, b, c, 1982, Maas et al. 2003, 2004, Maas & Waloszek 2005
38 Rehbachiella kinnekullensis Müller, 1983 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, uppermost Middle Cambrian according to latest decisions of the International Stratigraphic Commission, Agnostus-pisiformis zone (originally lowermost stratum of UC of the Baltoscandic Region) Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Branchiopoda – sister taxon to Eubranchiopoda   Müller 1983, Walossek & Müller 1990, 1998a, b, Walossek 1993, 1995, 1996, 1999, Walossek 2003a, b, Waloszek & Maas 2005
39 Sandtorpia vestro– gothiensis Haug, Maas & Waloszek, 2010 Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3 Euarthropoda Crustacea stemlineage   Haug et al. 2010b
40 Shergoldana australiensis Maas, Waloszek, Haug & Müller, 2007 Rogers Ridge, Australia, possibly, series 2 or 3, former Middle Cambrian Nemathelminthes ?Cycloneuralia   Maas et al. 2007
41 Skaracarida Müller & Walossek, 1985 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3 Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Maxillopoda copepodan lineage (related to Mystacocarida and Copepoda) see Skara Müller & Walossek 1985
42 Skara anulata Müller 1983 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3 Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Maxillopoda copepodan lineage Skaracarida Müller & Walossek, 1985   Müller 1983, Walossek & Müller 1990, 1998a, b, 
43 Skara ?minuta from a borehole in Poland, straum unclear Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Maxillopoda copepodan lineage Skaracarida Müller & Walossek, 1985   Walossek & Szaniawski 1991
44 Skara minuta Müller & Walossek, 1985 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3 Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Maxillopoda copepodan lineage Skaracarida Müller & Walossek, 1985   Müller & Walossek 1985, Walossek & Müller 1990, 1998a, b
45 Skara huanensis Dong in Liu & Dong, 2007 China, Upper Cambrian = Furngian, but unclear Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca Maxillopoda copepodan lineage Skaracarida Müller & Walossek, 1985   Liu & Dong 2007
46

Trapezilites minimus(Kummerow, 1931), ST 3423 (UB W 220)

A. pisiformis Zone and Olenus Zone (Lowermost Furongian) of Västergötland, Öland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina    
47 Type A larva, no 1 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3, but few specimens also from uppermost Furongian, more lower Ordovician (Canada) and series 2/3 (Australia) Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea   Müller & Walossek 1986b
48 Type A larva, no 2 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3 Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea   Walossek & Müller 1989
49

Veldotron bratteforsa Müller, 1964, ST 3491 (UB W 233)

Olenus Zone (Lowermost Furongian) of Västergötland, Öland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Müller 1964, see also Maas et al. 2003
50 Vestrogothia spinata Müller, 1964, ST 2252 (UB W 243) Ctenopyge Zone (Zone 5), Västergötland, S Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Müller 1964, see also Maas et al. 2003
51 Waldoria rotundata Gründel in Gründel & Buchholz, 1981, ST 11091 (UB W 224) A. pisiformis Zone, Västergötland, S; Holotype from erratic boulders of Rügen Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Phosphatocopina   Gründel & Buchholz 1980, see also Maas et al. 2003
52 Walossekia quinquespinosaMüller, 1983 Kinnekulle, Västergötland, Sweden, Cambrian series 3 Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca incertae sedis   Müller 1983
53 Wujicaris muelleri, Zhang, Maas, Haug, Siveter & Waloszek, 2010 Xiao-tan section, Yongshan, Yunnan Province, China (Yu’anshan Formation, Eoredlichia-Wutingaspis Biozone, upper Lower Cambrian of traditional usage) Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca incertae sedis   Zhang et al. 2010
54 Yicaris dianensisZhang, Siveter, Waloszek & Maas, 2007 Province Yunnan, China, Cambrian series 1 Euarthropoda Crustacea Labrophora Eucrustacea Entomostraca incertae sedis   Zhang, Siveter, Waloszek & Maas, 2007